10.5 The broad objective is to facilitate allocation of land to the uses that provide the greatest sustainable benefits and to promote the transition to a sustainable and integrated management of land resources. In doing so, environmental social and economic issues should be taken into consideration. Protected areas, private property rights, the rights of indigenous people and their communities and other local communities and the economic role of women in agriculture and rural development, among specific, terms, the objectives are as follows:
(d) To create mechanisms to facilitate the active involvement and participation of all concerned, particularly communities and people at the local level, in decision-making on land use and management, by not later that 1996.
10.10 Governments at the appropriate level, in collaboration with national institutions and the private sector and with the support of regional and international organizations, should establish innovative procedures, programmes, projects and services that facilitate and encourage the active participation of those affected in the decision-making and implementation process, especially groups that have, hitherto, often been excluded, such as women, youth, indigenous people and their communities and other local communities.
10.11 Governments at the appropriate level, in collaboration with national institutions and the private sector and with the support of regional and international organizations, should strengthen the information systems necessary for making decisions and evaluating future changes on land use and management. The needs of both men and women would be taken to account. To do this, they should:
(c) Provide the appropriate technical information necessary for informed decision-making on land use and management in an accessible form to all sectors of the population, especially to local communities and women.
10.16 Governments at the appropriate level, in collaboration with the appropriate local authorities, non-governmental organizations and international institutions, should promote the development of the human resources that are required to plan and manage land and land resources sustainably. This should be done by providing incentives for local initiatives and by enhancing local management capacity, particularly of women, through:
(a) Emphasizing interdisciplinary and integrative approaches in the curricula of schools and technical, vocational and university training;
(b) Training all relevant sectors concerned to deal with land resources in an integrated and sustainable manner;
(c) Training communities, relevant extension services, community- based groups and non-governmental organizations on land management techniques and approaches applied successfully elsewhere;
11.2 ... More effective measures and approaches are often required at the national level to improve and harmonized policy formulation, planning and programming; legislative measures and instruments; development patterns; participation of the general public, especially women and indigenous people; involvement of youth; roles of the private sector, local organizations, non-governmental organizations and cooperatives; development of technical and multidisciplinary skills and quality of human resources; forestry extension and public education; research capability and support; administrative structures and mechanisms, including intersectoral coordination, decentralization and responsibility and incentive systems; and dissemination of information and incentive systems; and dissemination of information and public relations. This is especially important to ensure a rational and holistic approach to the sustainable and environmentally sound development of forests.
11.4 ... Some of the major activities... are as follows:
(b) Promoting participation of the private sector, labour unions, rural cooperatives, local communities, indigenous people, youth, women, user groups and non-governmental organizations in forest-related activities, and access to information and training programmes within the national context;
(e) Establishing, developing and sustaining an effective system of forest extension and public education to ensure better awareness, appreciation and management of forests with regard to the multiple roles and values of trees, forests and forest lands;
(f) Establishing and/or strengthening institutions for forest education and training, as well as forestry industries, for developing an adequate cadre of trained and skilled staff at the professional, technical and vocational levels, with emphasis on youth and women.
11.14 Governments, with the participation of the private sector, non- governmental organizations, local community groups, indigenous people, women, local government units and the public at large, should act to maintain and expand the existing vegetative cover wherever ecologically, socially and economically feasible, through technical cooperation and other forms of support. Major activities to be considered include:
(i) Launching or improving opportunities for participation of all people including youth women, indigenous people and local communities in the formulation, development and implementation of forest-related programmes and other activities, taking due account of the local needs and cultural values.
11.19 Essential means for effectively implementing the activities include training and development of appropriate skills, working facilities and conditions, public motivation and awareness. Specific activities include:
(c) Supporting local organizations, communities, non- governmental organizations and private land owners, in particular women, youth, farmers and indigenous people/shifting cultivators, through extension and provision of inputs and training.
11.28 The success and effectiveness of the programme area depends on the availability of skilled personnel. Specialized training is an important factor in this regard. New emphasis should be given to the incorporation of women.
12.14 Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional organizations working on the issue of desertification and drought should:
(b) Promote the involvement of the local population, particularly women and youth, in the collection and utilization of environmental information through education and awareness- building.
12.24 Governments at the appropriate level and local communities, with the support of the relevant international and regional organizations, should:
(a) Establish mechanisms to ensure that land users, particularly women, are the main actors in implementing improved land use, including agroforestry systems, in combating land degradation.
12.28 Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional organizations, should:
(c) Establish and develop local, national and intersectoral mechanisms to handle environmental and developmental consequences of land tenure expressed in terms of land use and land ownership. Particular attention should be given to protecting the property rights of women and pastoral and nomadic groups living in rural areas.
12.37 Governments at the appropriate level, and with the support of the relevant international and regional organizations, should:
(c) Implement policies directed towards improving land use, managing common lands appropriately, providing incentives to small farmers and pastoralists, involving women and encouraging private investment in the development of drylands.
12.56 The objectives of this programme area are:
(d) To support local communities in their own efforts in combating desertification, and to draw on the knowledge and experience of the populations concerned, ensuring the full participation of women and indigenous populations.
12.57 Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional organizations, should:
(f) Develop training programs to increase the level of education and participation of people, particularly women and indigenous groups, through, inter alia, literacy and the development of technical skills;
(g) Create rural banking systems to facilitate access to credit for rural populations, particularly women and indigenous groups, and to promote rural savings;
12.58 Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional organizations, should:
(a) Review, develop and disseminate gender-disaggregated information, skills and know-how at all levels on ways of organizing and promoting popular participation.
13.11 Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional organizations, should:
(c) Undertake environmental education for farmers, in particular for women, to help the rural population better understand the ecological issues regarding the sustainable development of mountain ecosystems.
13.16 Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional organizations, should:
(a) Undertake measures to prevent soil erosion and promote erosion-control activities in all sectors;
(b) Establish task forces or watershed development committees, complementing existing institutions, to coordinate integrated services to support local initiatives in animal husbandry, forestry, horticulture and rural development at all administrative levels;
(c) Enhance popular participation in the management of local resources through appropriate legislation;
(d) Support non-governmental organizations and other private groups assisting local organizations and communities in the preparation of projects that would enhance participatory development of local people;
(e) Provide mechanisms to preserve threatened areas that could protect wildlife, conserve biological diversity or serve as national parks;
(f) Develop national policies that would provide incentives to farmers and local people to undertake conservation measures and to use environment-friendly technologies;
(g) Undertake income-generating activities in cottage and agro- processing industries, such as the cultivation and processing of medicinal and aromatic plants;
(h) Undertake the above activities, taking into account the need for full participation of women, including indigenous people and local communities in development.
13.17 Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional organizations, should:
(b) Generate data on alternative livelihoods and diversified production systems at the village level on annual and tree crops, livestock, poultry, beekeeping, fisheries, village industries, markets, transport and income-earning opportunities, taking fully into account the role of women and integrating them into the planning implementation process.
13.21 Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional organizations, should:
(b) Generate technologies for specific watershed and farm conditions through a participatory approach involving local men and women, researchers and extension agents who will carry out experiments and trials on farm conditions.
14.14 Governments at the appropriate level with the support of the relevant international and regional organizations, should:
(b) Establish legal measures to promote access of women to land and remove biases in their involvement in rural development.
14.17 The objectives of this programme area are:
(a) To promote greater public awareness of the role of people's participation and people's organizations especially women's groups, youth, indigenous people and people under occupation, local communities and small farmers, in sustainable agriculture and rural development;
(b) To ensure equitable access of rural people, particularly women, small farmers, landless and indigenous people and people under occupation, to land, water and forest resources and to technologies, financing, marketing, processing and distribution.
14.18 Governments at the appropriate level with the support of the relevant international and regional organizations, should:
(b) Review and refocus existing measures to achieve wider access to land, water and forest resources and ensure equal rights of women and other disadvantaged groups, with particular emphasis on rural populations, indigenous people, people under occupation and local communities.
14.27 Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional organizations, should:
(a) Develop and disseminate to farming households integrated farm management technologies, such as crop rotation, organic manuring and other techniques involving reduced use of agricultural chemicals, multiple techniques for sources of nutrients and the efficient utilization of external inputs, while enhancing techniques for waste and by-product utilization and prevention of pre- and post-harvest losses, taking particular note of the role of women.
14.81 Governments at the appropriate level with the support of the relevant international and regional organizations, should:
(b) Train extension agents and involve farmers and women's groups in corp health and alternative non-chemical ways of controlling pests in agriculture.
14.91 Governments at the appropriate level with the support of the relevant international and regional organizations, should:
(b) Train farmers and women's groups in plant nutrition management, with special emphasis on topsoil conservation and production.
15.4. Governments at the appropriate level, with the cooperation of the relevant United Nations bodies and regional, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, the private sector and financial institutions, and taking into consideration indigenous people and their communities, as well as social and economic factors, should:
(g)Recognize and foster the traditional methods and the knowledge of indigenous people and their communities, emphasizing the particular role of women, relevant to the conservation of biological resources, and ensure the opportunity for the participation of those groups in the economic and commercial benefits derived from the use of such traditional methods and knowledge.
15.5. Governments... should as appropriate:
(e)Subject to national legislation, take action to respect, record, protect and promote the wider application of the knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities embodying traditional lifestyles for the conservation of biological diversity and the sustainable use of biological resources, with a view to the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising, and promote mechanisms to involve those communities, including women, in the conservation and management of ecosystems; 1/
(f) Undertake long-term research into the importance of biodiversity for the functioning of ecosystems and the role of ecosystems in producing goods, environmental services and other values supporting sustainable development, with particular reference to the biology and reproductive capacities of key terrestrial and aquatic species, including native, cultivated and cultured species; new observation and inventor techniques; ecological conditions necessary for biodiversity conservation and continued evolution; and social behaviour and nutrition habits dependent on natural ecosystems, where women play key roles. The work should be undertaken with the widest possible participation, especially of indigenous people and their communities, including women 1/.
16.14. Governments at the appropriate level, with the assistance of international and regional organization, academic and scientific institutions, and the pharmaceutical industry, should, taking into account appropriate safety and ethical considerations:
(c)Establish and enforce screening, systematic sampling and evaluation procedures for drugs and medical technologies, with a view to barring the use of those that are unsafe for the purposes of experimentation; ensure that drugs and technologies relating to reproductive health are safe and effective and take account of ethical considerations.
16.15. The following activities should be undertaken:
(a)Research to assess the comparative social, environmental and financial costs and benefits of different technologies for basic and reproductive health care within a framework of universal safety and ethical considerations.
17.15 Coastal States should promote and facilitate the organization of education and training in integrated coastal and marine management and sustainable development for scientists, technologists, managers including community-based managers and users, leaders, indigenous peoples, fisherfolk, women and youth, among others. Management, development, as well as environmental protection concerns and local planning issues should be incorporated in educational curricula and public awareness campaigns, with due regard to traditional ecological knowledge and socio-cultural values.
17.82 Coastal States should support the sustainability of small- scale artisanal fisheries. To this end, they should, as appropriate:
(a)Integrate small-scale artisanal fisheries development in marine and coastal planning, taking into account the interests and, where appropriate, encouraging representation of fishermen, small-scale fisherworkers, women, local communities and indigenous people.
17.94. States individually, or through bilateral and multilateral cooperation and with the support of relevant international organizations, whether subregional, regional or global, as appropriate, should encourage and provide support for developing countries, inter alia, to:
(b)Create training opportunities at national and regional levels to support artisanal including subsistence fisheries, to develop small- scale use of marine living resources and to encourage equitable participation of local communities, small-scale fishworkers, women and indigenous people.
17.95. Coastal States with the support of relevant subregional, regional and global agencies, where appropriate, should:
(b)Provide support to local fishing communities, in particular those that rely on fishing for subsistence, indigenous people and women, including, as appropriate, the technical and financial assistance to organize, maintain, exchange and improve traditional knowledge of marine living resources and fishing techniques, and upgrade knowledge on marine ecosystems.
18.9.Integrated water resources management, including the integration of land- and water-related aspects, should be carried out at the level of the catchment basin or sub-basin. The following is an objective that should be pursued:
(c)To design, implement and evaluate projects and programmes that are both economically efficient and socially appropriate within clearly defined strategies, based on an approach of full public participation, including that of women, youth, indigenous people, local communities, in water management policy-making and decision-making.
18.12. All States, according to their capacity and available resources, and through bilateral or multilateral cooperation, including the United Nations and other relevant organizations as appropriate, could implement the following activities to improve integrated water resources management:
(n) Development of public participatory techniques and their implementation in decision-making, particularly the enhancement of the role of women in water resources planning and management.
18.19. The delegation of water resources management to the lowest appropriate level necessitates educating and training water management staff at all levels and ensuring that women participate equally in the education and training programmes. Particular emphasis has to be placed on the introduction of public participatory techniques, including enhancement of the role of women, youth, indigenous people and local communities. Skills related to various water management functions have to be developed by municipal government and water authorities, as well as in the private sector, local/national non-governmental organizations, cooperatives, corporations and other water-user groups. Education of the public regarding the importance of water and its proper management is also needed.
18.22. In creating the enabling environment for lowest-appropriate- level management, the role of Government includes mobilization of financial and human resources, legislation, standard-setting and other regulatory functions, monitoring and assessment of the use of water and land resources, and creating of opportunities for public participation. International agencies and donors have an important role to play in providing support to developing countries in creating the required enabling environment for integrated water resources management. This should include, as appropriate, donor support to local levels in developing countries, including community-based institutions, non-governmental organizations and women's groups.
18.33. Recommended actions include:
(b)Establishing and strengthening education and training programmes on water-related topics, within an environmental and developmental context, for all categories of staff involved in water resources assessment activities, using advanced educational technology, where appropriate, and involving both men and women;
18.34 ... The following national support action is necessary for enhanced national capacities:
(d)Strengthening of the managerial capabilities of water-user groups, including women, youth, indigenous people and local communities, to improve water-use efficiency at the local level.
18.44. Innovative approaches should be adopted for professional and managerial staff training in order to cope with changing needs and challenges.
18.45. Suitable approaches include the strengthening and improvement of the human resource capabilities of local Governments in managing water protection, treatment and use, particularly in urban areas, and the establishment of national and regional technical and engineering courses on the subjects of water-quality protection and control at existing schools and education/training courses on water resources protection and conservation for laboratory and field technicians, women and other water-user groups.
18.48. The New Delhi Statement (adopted at the Global Consultation on Safe Water and Sanitation for the 1990s, which was held in New Delhi from 10 to 14 September 1990) formalized the need to provide, on a sustainable basis, access to safe water in sufficient quantities and proper sanitation for all...Guiding principles provide for the programme objectives:
(b)Institutional reforms promoting an integrated approach and including changes in procedures, attitudes and behaviour, and the full participation of women at all levels in sector institutions.
18.50. All States, according to their capacity and available resources, and through bilateral or multilateral cooperation, including the United Nations and other relevant organizations as appropriate, could implement the following activities:
(b) (iv)Human resource development at levels, including special programmes for women;
(c) (ii)Encouragement of the local population, especially women, youth, indigenous people and local communities, in water management.
18.53. To effectively plan and manage water-supply and sanitation at the national, provincial, district, and community level, and to utilize funds most effectively, trained professional and technical staff must be developed within each country in sufficient numbers. To do this, countries must establish manpower development plans, taking into consideration present requirements and planned developments. Subsequently, the development and performance of country-level training institutions should be enhanced so that they can play a pivotal role in capacity-building. It is also important that countries provide adequate training for women in the sustainable maintenance of equipment, water resources management and environmental sanitation.
18.54. The implementation of water-supply and sanitation programmes is a national responsibility. To varying degrees, responsibility for the implementation of projects and the operating of systems should be delegated to all administrative levels down to the community and individual served. This also means that national authorities, together with the agencies and bodies of the United Nations system and other external support agencies providing support to national programmes, should develop mechanisms and procedures to collaborate at all levels. This is particularly important if full advantage is to be taken of community-based approaches and self-reliance as tools for sustainability. This will entail a high degree of community participation, involving women, in the conception, planning, decision-making, implementation and evaluation connected with projects for domestic water-supply and sanitation.
18.59. All States, according to their capacity and available resources, and through bilateral or multilateral cooperation, including the United Nations and other relevant organizations as appropriate, could implement the following activities:
(f)Provision of enhanced access to sanitary services:
(iv)Mobilization and facilitation of the active involvement of women in water management teams.
18.62 Implicit in virtually all elements of this programme is the need for progressive enhancement of the training and career development of personnel at all levels in sector institutions. Specific programme activities will involve the training and retention of staff with skills in community involvement, low-cost technology, financial management, and integrated planning of urban water resources management. Special provision should be made for mobilizing and facilitating the active participation of women, youth, indigenous people and local communities in water management teams and for supporting the development of water associations and water committees, with appropriate training of such personnel as treasurers, secretaries and caretakers. Special education and training programmes for women should be launched with regard to the protection of water resources and water-quality within urban areas.
18.68. The key strategic principles for holistic and integrated environmentally sound management of water resources in the rural context may be set forth as follows:
(b)Local communities must participate in all phases of water management, ensuring the full involvement of women in view of their crucial role in the practical day-to-day supply, management and use of water;
(c)Water resource management must be developed within a comprehensive set of policies for (i) human health; (ii) food production, preservation and distribution; (iii) disaster mitigation plans; (iv) environmental protection and conservation of the natural resource base;
(d)It is necessary to recognize and actively support the role of rural populations, with particular emphasis on women.
18.76. All States...could implement the following activities:
(iv) Promote community ownership and rights to water-supply and sanitation facilities.
18.80. Education and training of human resources should be actively pursued at the national level through: (a) assessment of current and long-term human resources management and training needs; (b) establishment of a national policy for human resources development; and (c) initiation and implementation of training programmes for staff at all levels as well as for farmers. The necessary actions are as follows:
(d)Train staff at all levels, including farmers, fisherman and members of local communities, with particular reference to women.
19.22. International organizations, with the participation of Governments and non-governmental organizations, should launch training and education projects involving women and children, who are at greatest risk, in order to enable countries, and particularly developing countries, to make maximum national use of international assessments of chemical risks.
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