25 Years of Towns and Cities: A Summary of some of the Changes

Source: Derek Lyddon in Cities, November 1989.

From: "Garden City" To: "Inner City"
From: "Expansion of New Development" To: "Conservation and renewal"
From: "Population and employment increase" To: "Stability, changes in social structure and our understanding of the future of work"
From: "Simplistic notion of planning as enlarged architecture" To: "The understanding of the city as a social and economic system"
From: "Creating and controlling whole environments" To: "Accepting diversity and the 'happy accident'"
From: "The 'end state' master plan" To: "Flexible policy plan"
From: "'Top-down' planning" To: "Encouraging self-help initiatives"
From: "Planning product according to design rules" To: "Planning process as a result of participation"
From: "Control by 'plot ratio'" To: "Urban impact analysis"
From: "Separation of land uses for health reasons" To: "A mixture of uses for social diversity"
From: "Confidence in the computer and quantitative methods" To: "Mistrust of model-based planning"
From: "Quantitative methods" To: "Qualitative methods"
From: "The planner as the only discipine involved in planning" To: "Corporate view and product from a wide range of discipines"
From: "The pursuit of exciting but simplistic new images" To: "The discovery of order in existing diversity"
From: "Industrial technology" To: "Electronic technology"
From: "Cheap energy" To: "Expensive technology"
From: "Central systems" To: "Quest for decentralization"
From: "Consensus and agreed definitions" To: "Roles of experts questioned"
From: "Municipality provides services" To: "Municipality acts as civic enterpreneurer"
From: "Urban governance: worst first" To: "Municipal marketing: invest in success"

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