Foster a learning culture
1. Offer training, within an overall culture that encourages cooperation,
risk-taking, and growth.
2. Get learners' buy-in and commitment in achieving training goals.
3. Demonstrate the value of of the training to the learners and cultivate
their sense of confidence in their ability to master the objectives
Make training problem-centered.
4. Draw on authentic needs and contexts; make requirements of learning tasks
similar to important requirements of job tasks.
5. Encourage learners' active construction of meaning, drawing on their
existing knowledge (Resnick, 1983).
6. Teach multiple learning outcomes together (Gagne & Merrill, 1990).
7. Sequence instruction so that learners can immediately benefit from what
they learn by applying it to real-world tasks.
Help learners assume control of their learning.
8. Provide coaching.
9. Provide scaffolding and support in performing complex tasks.
a. Adjust tools (equipment), task, and environment.
b. Provide timely access to information and expertise.
c. Provide timely access to performance feedback.
d. Utilize group problem-solving methods.
e. Provide help only when the learner is at an impasse and only enough help
for the learner to complete the task.
10. Fade support.
11. Minimize mean time to help (i.e., provide "just-in-time" training).
12. Encourage learners to reflect on their actions.
13. Encourage exploration.
14. Encourage learners to detect and learn from their errors.
Provide meaningful "practice."
15. Provide opportunities for learners to apply what they've learned in
authentic contexts. If it is not feasible to practice on real tasks, provide
cases or simulations.
16. Personalize practice (Ross & Morrison, 1988).
Abstracted from: Wilson, B. G., Jonassen, D. H., & Cole, P. (1993). Cognitive
approaches to instructional design. In G. M. Piskurich (Ed.), The ASTD
handbook of instructional technology (pp. 21.1-21.22). New York: