- View the organization as a human community capable of
providing diverse meanings to
information outputs generated by the technological systems,
instead of the traditional
emphasis on command and control.
- De-emphasize the adherence to the "way things have
always been done"
so that such prevailing practices may be continuously assessed
from multiple perspectives
for their alignment with the dynamically changing external
Encourage diverse viewpoints by avoiding premature consensus on
issues that need deeper analysis of underlying assumptions. Often,
viewpoints of persons with differing backgrounds and expertise can provide a much
broader focus that is essential for completely grasping the essence of the
core issues, particularly when the changing context demands a fresh look
at what was yesterday defined as a "benchmark" or a "best practice."
- Encourage greater proactive involvement of human imagination
and creativity to
facilitate greater internal diversity to match the variety and
complexity of the wicked
- Give more explicit recognition to tacit knowledge and related
human aspects, such
as ideals, values, or emotions, for developing a richer
conceptualization of knowledge
- Implement new, flexible technologies and systems that support
and enable communities
of practice, informal and semi-informal networks of
internal employees and
external individuals based on shared concerns and interests.
- Make the organizational information base accessible to
organization members who are
closer to the action, while simultaneously ensuring that they
have the skills and
authority to execute decisive responses to changing conditions.
Source: Arie de Geus, The Living Company (Harvard Business School Press, 1997).