Three Generations of
NGO development Programme Strategies

First Second Third
Defining Features Relief and Welfare Small-scale, self-reliant local development Sustainable systems development
Problem Definition Shortages of goods and services Local inertia Institutional and policy constraints
Time Frame Immediate Project life Indefinate long-term
Spatial Scope Individual or family Neighbourhood or village Region or nation
Chief Actors NGO NGO + beneficiary organizations All public and private institutions that define the relevant system
Development Education Starving Children Community self-help initiatives Failures in interdependent systems
Management Orientation Logistics management Project management Strategic management
Korten, David, "Third Generation NGO Strategies: A Key to People-centered Development".Paper presented at the NGO Workshop organized at the Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok, October 17-21, 1988.

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