|Urban Interface: Man's fingerprints all over ...
Key dimensions of human-ocean interaction
Contents to be confirmed and verified ...
The ocean affects our weather and climate, provides a home to fisheries, which are a major food source for the world, and is largely unexplored in its depths. As the world population and standard of living grows, nations need to understand the impact of the ocean and the importance of sustainable use of ocean resources. But human activities and utilization of these resources have primarily been exploitative. What are the dimensions of this relationship?
| Bio-resources utilization
||One of the most significant and largest of the dimensions has been the utilization of bio-resources, including fish, seaweed and a range of other resources for human consumption. Global fish production exceeds that of cattle, sheep, poultry or eggs. It is the biggest source of wild or domestic protein
in the world.
|Transportation and Harbour development
||A significant amount of trade and transfer of goods takes place over the oceans. In US alone, more than 90% of all foreign trade passes through ports and are transported via ships. One-fourth to one-third of gross domestic products of many countries is produced in coastal areas. Habours play a significant role in this process.
||Tapping the oceans for a variety of sea-bed resources has been a concerted effort on the part of many nations. Oil and natural gas have been the most significant of these resources, supplying 17 percent of the world's supply. Phosphorite is a phosphorous mineral known to be available on the seafloor that has potential use as an agricultural fertilizer. Much interest has been expressed recently in manganese nodules, which are spherical concretions on the seafloor containing about 20 percent manganese, 10 percent iron, 0.3 percent copper, 0.3 percent nickel, and 0.3 percent cobalt.
||Understanding the lifeforms that have adapted the ocean as their habitat has enabled scientists to learn about survival and environmental effects of human activities. The concern for preserving the integrity of the ocean has grown as a result of the understanding of the various interrelated processes that make up the ocean. Scientists have attempted to understand the geologic and geochemical processes involved in the evolution and alteration of the ocean and its basin, and to evaluate the interaction of the ocean and the atmosphere so that greater knowledge of climatic variations can be attained.
|Recreation and tourism
||Recreation and tourism are the 'non-invasive' (though debatable) dimensions of human interaction with the oceans. It accounts for more than five percent of the world's total GNP. From 20% to more than 80% of economic activities in island nations depend on coastal areas for their survival, in the form of hotels, restaurants, shop sales, tours etc. More than half the world's population live within 100 km (60 miles) of a coastline - more than 2,700,000,000 people (2.7 billion). This puts considerable pressure on the ... kms of coastline available for this populance.
||Military involvement with the ocean is less tangible, and has not been well understood. Since ancient times, a nations ability to 'rule the seas' has been used as a measure of its military strength.