The most recent trends and forecasting studies by the World Tourism
Organisation indicate that cities will continue to be in high demand by
tourists of all sorts, and the problems associated with the handling of these
tourists will have to be more systematically tackled by all parties
Cities to absorb growth in world tourism: |
International tourist arrivals in
1995 were 563 million and are expected to reach 1.6 billion by the year
2020. These forecasts use a conservative growth rate of 4.3% and 6.7%
respectively; less than the current growth rate. They do not include any
domestic tourism which can readily be anticipated to equal the
international. It is obvious that most of this increase will have to be
absorbed by cities.
- World Tourism Organisation
Cities face, therefore, a double challenge. Firstly, they have to be able to
respond to the expectations and needs of the growing numbers of tourists who
are attracted to their rich and varied array of cultural, business,
entertainment, shopping, sports and other attractions; furthermore, they
need to continuously renovate and improve such facilities in order to
maintain their share in the competitive tourism market and the benefits
resulting from it. Secondly, cities have to ensure that tourism is developed
and managed in such a way that it benefits the resident population, does not
contribute to the deterioration of the urban environment but rather to its
enhancement, and does not become a financial burden to the local authority.
Some of the key stakeholders in urban tourism include:
Private Sector i.e. airlines, hotel chain operators and owners, tour
operators, credit card companies, tourist attraction operators (theme parks,
events etc.), real estate agencies;
- Public Sector i.e. city managers (from the historic city to the seaside
resort), transportation planners, bus and train operators, information
departments, economic development agencies, national parks, national tourist
- Touristic Institutions i.e. museums, art galleries, historic facilities
(e.g. the national trust) and educational organisations.
There are three key dimensions of tourism in cities and urban areas:
- Products - the anticipated changes necessary from tourist attraction
providers; theme parks, operators of events (sports, shows, fairs), museums
and hotels. What are their plans, how do they respond to the anticipated
- Information - How does a city make itself more tourist friendly? What are
the information systems available to tourists? How do tour operators deal
with this growing demand? How to accumulate information on customer
preferences and requirement, seasonal changes, age groups etc.? How to
develop enduring attractions which will provide sustainable development?
What information does the city provide in order to attract tourist
- Impacts - economic and development opportunities as well as the impact of
tourism growth on sustainable development, transportation, cultural and
environmental, social and economic aspects.
- AIDE MEMOIRE - "TOURISM AND THE CITY: The challenge of sustainability"
from 10 to 12 November 1999 in Madrid, Spain