Objectives of Instructional Design
Learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts
based upon their current/past knowledge. The learner selects and transforms
information, constructs hypotheses, and makes decisions, relying on a cognitive
structure to do so. Cognitive structure (i.e., schema, mental models) provides
meaning and organization to experiences and allows the individual to "go beyond
the information given".
- Instruction must be concerned with the experiences and contexts that make
the student willing and able to learn (readiness).
- Instruction must be structured so that it can be easily grasped by the
student (spiral organization).
- Instruction should be designed to facilitate extrapolation and or fill in
the gaps (going beyond the information given).
Source: Miller, G.A. (1956). The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on
our capacity for processing information. Psychological Review, 63, 81-97.