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An impediment in using information effectively is the four kinds of information gaps: information you know you have; information you know you don't have; information you don't know you have; and information you don't know you don't have.
This matrix has implications for access to information, identifying information sources, packaging and disseminating information. Many problems we currently face, particularly in the decision-making processes, can be traced back to the existence of such information gaps, leading to lopsided or inadequate decisions.