Squatter settlement development
Based information collected during a survey of squatter settlements in Bangalore, India, and Bangkok, Thailand, it was apparent that there were two processes that influenced the formation and development of a settlement: the "organic" and "induced" processes.
1. The Organic Process
The organic process of settlement development refers to forces and pressures that are initiated from within the settlement and squatter. They are evolved naturally, without any outside intervention and using internal resources of the household or settlement for development, such as own labour, locally available building materials etc.
The process commences with the "appropriation" of land by the migrant low-income family. Land ownership may rest with the government or private parties. Sometimes, in the case of private land owners, the land may be rented for a nominal amount.
The process of actual squatting does not have an "end" as such. Not only are houses built and upgraded piece by piece over time, but new houses are built in adjoining open areas. Thus, credit is mobilized and a material is purchased, or a building component is repaired and upgraded. The proof of this process is in the existence of consolidated, mixed and non-consolidated areas in a settlement. Those areas close to a main thoroughfare or commercial areas generally develop first. Gradually as time passes, the houses in the old areas (the consolidated ones) are upgraded and new houses (mixed and non-consolidated ones) come up in areas further beyond the main thoroughfare.
2. The Induced Process
The induced process of development essentially refers to "inducement" set up by agencies and organizations that are external to the settlement. Operating with objectives and goals on a larger and city-wide scale, they initiate programmes for the overall development of the entire city or a particular aspect, such as health or education.
The inducement can come from two sources:
The link between organic and induced processes develops as a result of three probable causes:
The ability of the residents to mobilize resources from within the settlement as well as from outside in terms of "people's resources" is a critical aspect which needs to be utilized in any settlement development programme.
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