Urban E-Governance
Four Kinds of E-Governance: A Stakeholder Analysis

Hari Srinivas
Concept Note Series C-039

E -governance, or electronic governance, has become an integral part of modern governance systems, leveraging digital technologies to enhance government operations and interactions with various urban stakeholders.

There are essentially four types of e-governance - G2C (Government to Citizens) G2B (Government to Business) G2E (Government to employees) G2G (Government to Government) that represent different dimensions of digital interactions and services within the broader scope of e-governance.

E-Governance interactions take place primarily
between four stakeholders: government agencies,
businesses, citizens and public employees.

Each type focuses on specific stakeholders and their respective needs, aiming to improve service delivery, efficiency, and transparency in government operations while enhancing citizen engagement, business facilitation, employee management, and intergovernmental collaboration.

G2C (Government to Citizens)
  • This enables citizens to benefit from the efficient delivery of a large range of public services.
  • Expands the accessibility and availability of government services and also improves the quality of services
  • The primary aim is to make the government citizen-friendly.
  • G2C e-governance refers to the digital interactions and services provided by the government to citizens. It involves the use of digital platforms and technologies to deliver public services, information, and benefits directly to individuals. Examples include online portals for accessing government services, applying for documents like passports or driver's licenses, paying taxes online, accessing public information, and participating in online consultations. G2C e-governance aims to make government services more accessible, convenient, and citizen-centric, empowering individuals to engage with government and access services from anywhere at any time.
    G2B (Government to Business)
  • It enables the business community to interact with the government by using e-governance tools.
  • The objective is to cut red-tapism which will save time and reduce operational costs. This will also create a more transparent business environment when dealing with the government.
  • The G2B initiatives help in services such as licensing, procurement, permits and revenue collection.
  • G2B e-governance focuses on the digital interactions between the government and businesses. It involves providing online platforms and services that facilitate business registration, licensing, permits, tax filing, procurement processes, and other government-business interactions. G2B e-governance aims to simplify administrative procedures, reduce red tape, and improve the ease of doing business. By digitizing business-government interactions, G2B e-governance enables faster processing times, increased transparency, and improved efficiency in business-related transactions and regulatory compliance.
    G2E (Government to Employees)
  • This kind of interaction is between the government and its employees.
  • ICT tools help in making these interactions fast and efficient and thus increases the satisfaction levels of employees.
  • G2E e-governance refers to the use of digital technologies to manage and streamline internal government operations and interactions with employees. It involves digital platforms and systems that facilitate employee recruitment, performance management, training programs, payroll management, leave applications, and communication within government organizations. G2E e-governance aims to enhance the efficiency, productivity, and engagement of government employees by providing them with user-friendly and efficient digital tools for managing their work-related processes and accessing relevant information.
    G2G (Government to Government)
  • Enables seamless interaction between various government entities.
  • This kind of interaction can be between various departments and agencies within government or between two governments like the union and state governments or between state governments.
  • The primary aim is to increase efficiency, performance and output.
  • G2G e-governance focuses on the digital interactions and exchange of information between different government agencies or departments. It involves the sharing of data, resources, and services between government entities to improve coordination, collaboration, and efficiency in governance. G2G e-governance includes electronic data exchanges, interdepartmental communication systems, shared databases, and collaborative platforms that facilitate information sharing, policy coordination, and joint decision-making among government organizations. G2G e-governance aims to break down silos, promote interagency cooperation, and streamline government processes by leveraging digital technologies.


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